Infact it is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power.
This oil is also termed as Bunker fuel, and Fuel oil in different circumstances.
Its property of Viscosity influences the degree of pre-heat required in order to meet storage and atomization requirements. If the oil is too viscous it may become difficult for us to pump; the burner may be hard to light and operation may be erratic. On the other hand, Poor atomization may result in the carbon getting deposited on the burner walls. Thus, Pre-heating is a necessary perquisite for proper atomization. Therefore, the Fuel oil/Furnace oil, in India, in the current marketing range has to meet the Bureau of Indian Standards Specifications.
Furnace oil falls in the class “C” category with minimum flash point standard of 66 deg c. As per the Controller of Explosives classification. Based on the methods, Like Pensky Mckay, it is apparent that a small quantity of low boiling point hydrocarbons is sufficient to lower the flash point drastically.
Furnace oil being a blend of residues contains some quantity of sediments. These have adverse effect on the burners and cause blockage of filters etc. However, the typical values are normally much lower than the stipulated value of maximum 0.25 percent, by mass.
Calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat generated in kilocalories by complete burning of one kilogram weight of fuel. Gross calorific value is higher than net calorific value to the extent of heat required to change water formed by combustion into water vapours.
Furnace oil has many uses; it heats homes and businesses and fuels trucks, ships and some cars. A small amount of electricity is produced by diesel, but it is more polluting and more expensive than natural gas. It is often used as a backup fuel for peaking power plants in case the supply of natural gas is interrupted or as the main fuel for small electrical generators.
In Europe the use of diesel is generally restricted to cars (about 40%), SUVs (about 90%), and trucks and buses (virtually all). The market for home heating using fuel oil, called heating oil, has decreased due to the widespread penetration of natural gas. However, it is very common in some areas, such as the Northeastern United States.
Residual fuel oil is less useful because it is so viscous that it has to be heated with a special heating system before use and it contains relatively high amounts of pollutants, particularly sulfur, which forms sulfur dioxide upon combustion.
However, its undesirable properties make it very cheap. Water may be present in free or emulsified form and can on combustion cause damage to the inside furnace surfaces especially if it contains dissolved salts. It can also cause sputtering of the flame at the burner tip. Water content of furnace oil when supplied is normally very low as the product at refinery site is handled hot and maximum limit of 1% is specified in the standard.
Ash is incombustible component of the furnace oil and is expressed as a percentage mass of the furnace oil sample. Ash consists of extraneous solids, residues of organ metallic compounds in solution and salts dissolved in water present in the fuel. These salts may be compounds of sodium, vanadium, calcium magnesium, silicon, iron etc.
In fact, it is the cheapest liquid fuel available. Since it requires heating before use, residual fuel oil cannot be used in road vehicles, boats or small ships, as the heating equipment takes up valuable space and makes the vehicle heavier. Heating the oil is also a delicate procedure, which is inappropriate to do on small, fast moving vehicles.
However, power plants and large ships are able to use residual fuel oil.a very rough indication of the lowest temperature at which Furnace Oil is readily pumpable. In the specification the pour point of Furnace oil is not stipulated. However, for Furnace oil manufactured indigenously and for imported parcels, the pour point is such that current supplies normally can be handled without heating the fuel oil handling installation.